This page was downloaded from the Occupational Performance Model (Australia) [OPM(A)] website (www.occupationalperformance.com) re-launched in 2006. It contains a reprint of the consolidated list of constructs of the OPM(A) and how they are defined in this model. The original publication details are as follows:
Ranka, J. & Chapparo, C. (1997). Definition of terms In C. Chapparo & J. Ranka (Eds). Occupational Performane Model (Australia): Monograph 1(pp. 58-60). Total Print Control: Sydney [now out of print].
NOTE: Some aspects of the constructs and assumptions presented in this model of occupational performance are not new, but reflect a synthesis of ideas about the nature of human occupations found in the literature (CAOT, 1991; Christiansen, 1991; Meyer, 1922; Reed, 1984). Other aspects of the model extend these constructs and assumptions to form a new configuration of occupational performance that differs from notions currently in existence.
OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE: The ability to perceive, desire, recall, plan and carry out roles, routines, tasks and sub-tasks for the purpose of self-maintenance, productivity, leisure and rest in response to demands of the internal and/or external environment.
OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE ROLES: are patterns of occupational behaviour composed of configurations of self-maintenance, productivity, leisure and rest occupations. Roles are determined by individual person-environment-performance relationships. They are established through need and/or choice and are modified with age, ability, experience, circumstance and time.
OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE AREAS: are categories of routines, tasks and sub-tasks performed by people to fulfil the requirements of occupational performance roles. These categories include self-maintenance occupations, productivity/school occupations, leisure/play occupations and rest occupations. The classification of occupations into these categories is an idiosyncratic process.
Rest Occupations: refer to the purposeful pursuit of non-activity. This can include time devoted to sleep (Meyer, 1922), as well as routines, tasks, sub-tasks and rituals undertaken in order to relax.
Self-Maintenance Occupations: are routines, tasks and sub-tasks done to preserve a person's health and well being in the environment (Reed, 1986, p.499). These routines, tasks and sub-tasks can be in the form of habitual routines (dressing, eating) or occasional non-habitual tasks (taking medication) that are demanded by circumstance.
Productivity/School Occupations: are routines, tasks and sub-tasks which are done to enable a person to provide support for self, family or community through the production of goods or provision of services (Reed, 1986, p.499).
Leisure/Play Occupations: are those routines, tasks and sub-tasks for purposes of entertainment, creativity and celebration, for example gardening, sewing, games.
OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE COMPONENTS: are the component attributes of the performer as well as the components of occupational tasks. The physical, sensory-motor, cognitive, and psychosocial dimensions of any task performed mirrors and prompts a person's various physical, sensory-motor, cognitive and psychosocial operations that are used to engage in task performance. These components of occupational performance are classified as biomechanical components, sensory-motor components, cognitive components, intrapersonal components and interpersonal components.
Biomechanical Performance Component: From the perspective of the performer, this component refers to the operation and interaction of and between physical structures of the body during task performance. This can include range of motion, muscle strength, grasp, muscular and cardiovascular endurance, circulation, elimination of body waste. From the perspective of the task or sub-task, this component refers to the biomechanical attributes of the task; for example, size, weight, dimension and location of objects.
Sensory-Motor Performance Component: From the perspective of the performer, this component refers to the operation and interaction of and between sensory input and motor responses of the body during task performance. This can include regulation of muscle tone during activity, generation of appropriate motor responses, registration of sensory stimuli and coordination. From the perspective of the task or sub-task, this component refers to the sensory aspects of the task; for example, colour, texture, temperature, movement, sound, smell and taste.
Cognitive Performance Component: From the perspective of the performer, this component refers to the operation and interaction of and between mental processes used during task performance. This can include: thinking, perceiving, recognising, remembering, judging, learning, knowing, attending and problem solving. From the perspective of the task or sub-task, this component refers to the cognitive dimensions of the task or sub-task. These are usually determined by the complexity of the task.
Intrapersonal Performance Component: From the perspective of the performer, this component refers to the operation and interaction of and between internal psychological processes used during task performance. This can include emotions, self-esteem, mood, affect, rationality and defence mechanisms. From the perspective of the task or sub-task, this component refers to the intrapersonal attributes that can be stimulated by the task or sub-task and are required for effective task performance, such as, valuing, satisfaction and motivation.
Interpersonal Performance Component: From the perspective of the performer, this component refers to the continuing and changing interaction between a person and others during task performance that contributes to the development of the individual as a participant in society. This can include interaction among individuals in relationships such as marriages, families, communities and organisations both formal and informal. Interactive examples include sharing, cooperation, empathy, verbal and non-verbal communication. From the perspective of the task or sub-task, this component refers to the nature and degree of interpersonal interaction required for effective task performance.
CORE ELEMENTS OF OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE: are the body, mind and spirit. The Occupational Performance Model (Australia) acknowledges that together these core elements of human existence form the human body, the human brain, the human mind, the human consciousness of self and the human awareness of the universe (Popper, 1981)
Body Element: is defined as all of the tangible physical components of human structure.
Mind Element: is defined as the core of our conscious and unconscious intellect that forms the basis of our ability to understand and reason.
Spirit Element: is defined loosely as that aspect of humans which seeks a sense of harmony within self and between self, nature, others and in some cases an ultimate other; seeks an existing mystery to life; inner conviction; hope and meaning.
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT: is an interactive sensory-physical-socio-cultural phenomenon within which occupational performance occurs. The interaction of these four dimensions creates further sub-dimensions such as political and economic environments that profoundly affect occupational performance. The occupational performance environment shapes the nature of occupational performance and is also modified by it.
Physical Environment: refers to the natural and constructed surroundings of a person that form physical boundaries and contribute to shaping behaviour.
Sensory Environment: refers to the sensory surroundings of a person. Sensory aspects of the environment give a person information about the physical-socio-cultural aspects of the environment and its survivability
Cultural Environment: refers to an organised structure composed of systems of values, beliefs, ideals and customs which contribute to the behavioural boundaries of a person or group of people.
Social Environment: refers to an organised structure created by the patterns of relationships between people who function in a group which in turn contributes to establishing the boundaries of behaviour.
SPACE: refers to compositions of physical matter (Physical Space) and a person's view of the experience of space (Felt Space).
TIME: refers to the temporal ordering of physical events (Physical Time) as well as a person's understanding of time based on the meaning that is attributed to it (Felt Time).
REFERENCES:Canadian Association of Occupational Therapy (1991). Occupational therapy guidelines for client-centered practice. (Available from CAOT, 110 Eglinton Ave. West, 3rd Floor, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4R 1A3)
Chapparo C., & Ranka, J. (1996). Occupational performance model (Australia) Draft Manuscript. (Available from authors, School of Occupational Therapy, The University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia 2141)
Christiansen, C. (1991). Occupational therapy: intervention for life performance. In C. Christiansen, & C. Baum (Eds.), Occupational therapy: overcoming human performance deficits (pp3-44). Thorofare NJ: Slack, Inc.
Meyer, A. (1922). The philosophy of occupational therapy. New York: Ravens Press
Popper, K. (1981). Part 1, in K. Popper, & J. Eccles, The self and its brain: an argument for interactionism (pp. 3-211). Berlin: Springer International
Reed, K. (1984). Models of practice in occupational therapy. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins